The Physiological Effects


  • DNA synthesis – the protein building block essential to the process of regeneration
  • Collagen production – increases tensile strength of muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • ATP – (adenosine triphosphate) the fuel of the cell required in facilitating cell metabolism
  • Endorphins – morphine like substances produced by the body to reduce the sensation of pain


  • Immune response
  • Lymphatic drainage – reduces edemas
  • Angiogenesis – the formation of new capillaries and arterioles resulting in improved circulation/tissue oxygenation
  • Modulation of cellular components involved in the healing process – i.e. macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, etc.